astroML.density_estimation.bayesian_blocks(t, x=None, sigma=None, fitness='events', **kwargs)[source]

Deprecated since version 0.4: The bayesian_blocks function is deprecated and may be removed in a future version. Use astropy.stats.bayesian_blocks instead.

Bayesian Blocks Implementation

This is a flexible implementation of the Bayesian Blocks algorithm described in Scargle 2012 [R0f8fad5c1ca2-1]


data times (one dimensional, length N)

xarray_like (optional)

data values

sigmaarray_like or float (optional)

data errors

fitnessstr or object

the fitness function to use. If a string, the following options are supported:

  • ‘events’binned or unbinned event data

    extra arguments are p0, which gives the false alarm probability to compute the prior, or gamma which gives the slope of the prior on the number of bins.

  • ‘regular_events’non-overlapping events measured at multiples

    of a fundamental tick rate, dt, which must be specified as an additional argument. The prior can be specified through gamma, which gives the slope of the prior on the number of bins.

  • ‘measures’fitness for a measured sequence with Gaussian errors

    The prior can be specified using gamma, which gives the slope of the prior on the number of bins. If gamma is not specified, then a simulation-derived prior will be used.

Alternatively, the fitness can be a user-specified object of type derived from the FitnessFunc class.


array containing the (N+1) bin edges

See also


histogram plotting function which can make use of bayesian blocks.


Event data:

>>> t = np.random.normal(size=100)
>>> bins = bayesian_blocks(t, fitness='events', p0=0.01)

Event data with repeats:

>>> t = np.random.normal(size=100)
>>> t[80:] = t[:20]
>>> bins = bayesian_blocks(t, fitness='events', p0=0.01)

Regular event data:

>>> dt = 0.01
>>> t = dt * np.arange(1000)
>>> x = np.zeros(len(t))
>>> x[np.random.randint(0, len(t), int(len(t) / 10))] = 1
>>> bins = bayesian_blocks(t, x, fitness='regular_events', dt=dt, gamma=0.9)

Measured point data with errors:

>>> t = 100 * np.random.random(100)
>>> x = np.exp(-0.5 * (t - 50) ** 2)
>>> sigma = 0.1
>>> x_obs = np.random.normal(x, sigma)
>>> bins = bayesian_blocks(t, x=x_obs, fitness='measures')