# Example of Student’s t distribution¶

Figure 3.15.

This shows an example of Student’s t distribution with various parameters. We’ll generate the distribution using:

dist = scipy.stats.student_t(...)


Where … should be filled in with the desired distribution parameters Once we have defined the distribution parameters in this way, these distribution objects have many useful methods; for example:

• dist.pmf(x) computes the Probability Mass Function at values x in the case of discrete distributions

• dist.pdf(x) computes the Probability Density Function at values x in the case of continuous distributions

• dist.rvs(N) computes N random variables distributed according to the given distribution

Many further options exist; refer to the documentation of scipy.stats for more details.



# Author: Jake VanderPlas
#   The figure produced by this code is published in the textbook
#   "Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy" (2013)
#   To report a bug or issue, use the following forum:
import numpy as np
from scipy.stats import t as student_t
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

#----------------------------------------------------------------------
# This function adjusts matplotlib settings for a uniform feel in the textbook.
# Note that with usetex=True, fonts are rendered with LaTeX.  This may
# result in an error if LaTeX is not installed on your system.  In that case,
# you can set usetex to False.
if "setup_text_plots" not in globals():
from astroML.plotting import setup_text_plots
setup_text_plots(fontsize=8, usetex=True)

#------------------------------------------------------------
# Define the distribution parameters to be plotted
mu = 0
k_values = [1E10, 2, 1, 0.5]
linestyles = ['-', '--', ':', '-.']
x = np.linspace(-10, 10, 1000)

#------------------------------------------------------------
# plot the distributions
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(5, 3.75))

for k, ls in zip(k_values, linestyles):
dist = student_t(k, 0)

if k >= 1E10:
label = r'$\mathrm{t}(k=\infty)$'
else:
label = r'$\mathrm{t}(k=%.1f)$' % k

plt.plot(x, dist.pdf(x), ls=ls, c='black', label=label)

plt.xlim(-5, 5)
plt.ylim(0.0, 0.45)

plt.xlabel('$x$')
plt.ylabel(r'$p(x|k)$')
plt.title("Student's $t$ Distribution")

plt.legend()
plt.show()